Iron Gates Nature Park: Biodiversity and Multiculturalism

Diana Condrea
Diana Condrea
Diana is a tourism consultant, tour guide, travel writer and amateur photographer. You can find Diana on LinkedIn

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Iron Gates Nature Park is a distinct presence on Romania’s map of protected areas. It’s the place where the Danube forms its longest and most spectacular gorges. The landscape it creates is one of the most breathtaking in Europe and one of Romania’s top natural attractions.

iron gates nature park

View of the gorges from the Serbian shore

Wetland of international importance

Located in the south-west part of the country, on over 115,000 hectares and bordered for 140 km by the Danube, Iron Gates Nature Park is a rare mix of biodiversity, geological attractions, traditional villages, and multicultural heritage.

It’s also a favorite place for many aquatic birds that live in the park or migrate here for the mild winters, the area of the Iron Gates being included on the RAMSAR list of wetlands of international importance. Most of the 205 bird species identified in the park are in fact aquatic birds. If you have an eye for it, you can spot Black Storks, Pygmy Cormorants, the Small Egret, or the White Great Egret.

The Danube Gorges

On the territory of this nature park, the Danube forms the longest gorges in Europe (134 km) and, in its narrowest sector, creates the Great and Small Danube Gorges where tall and abrupt rocky hills like Ciucarul Mic (313 meters) and Stirbatul Mic (626 meters) border the river.

iron gates nature park

Boats cruising on the Danube Gorges

The Great Gorges are 3.8 km long and 200-350 meters wide while the Small Gorges narrow Europe’s second-largest river to just 150 meters in some areas. You can take one of the numerous river cruises that depart all day long from the small bay where the statue of Decebal is located. This way, you get to navigate between the Great and Small Gorges, but you’ll also visit the cave Veterani, used many times across the centuries for protection against wars and conflicts.

You can also choose one of the many hiking trails that will take you to panoramic viewpoints above the defile. If you’re feeling even more adventurous, go on a guided tour of the cave Ponicova, also known as the Bats’ Cave.

High biodiversity

The variety of the landscape, the climate’s Mediterranean influences, and the wild gorges make this protected area one of the richest areas of Romania in terms of biodiversity. Important species, some unique in the country, are found here. The animal species are best represented by the high number of birds, fish, and amphibians.

Thirty-four species of mammals are found in the park, from big carnivores like the brown bear or the lynx to wild cats or red deer. Iron Gates Nature Park is also the home of two rare reptile species, Hermann’s Tortoise and the Long-Noised Viper, both protected and endangered.

viper Romania

Viper, Romania

Multi-ethnic heritage and historical attractions

In the villages from the Iron Gates, Serbian, Czech, and Turkish communities left their mark on local culture, shaping its authenticity and cultural value. This is, in fact, the protected area with the highest ethnic diversity in Romania. A visit to the ethnographic museums from Eselnita, Gornea, or the Iron Gates I Hydroelectric Power Plant Museum is an excellent chance to learn more about the local multicultural diversity.

Plenty of historical attractions complete the list of places to see. Among the main attractions are the ruins of the medieval fortress Trikule, Mraconia Monastery, the water mills from Sichevita, the 14th-century Vodita Monastery, and the unconventional Catholic Cathedral from Orsova.

iron gates nature park

View of Mraconia Monastery and the gorges

European record sculpture and dams

And there’s more. Close to the Monastery of Mraconia, you’ll find the biggest rock sculpture in Europe, representing the ancient Dacian king, Decebal. Almost 55 meters tall, the sculpture required 10 years (1994-2004) of hard and often dangerous work as the rock is only accessible by water. On the opposing Serbian shore, you’ll see the symbol of the Roman Empire’s final attack over the Dacian Kingdom, the rock inscription Tabula Traiana, almost 2,000 years old.

iron gates nature park

Rock sculpture representing the Dacian King Decebal

One of the best attractions of the Iron Gates was, however, drowned by the Danube. The construction of the largest hydroelectric power plants on the Danube River, Iron Gates I and Iron Gates II, increased the water level by 35 meters. Together with other villages, the island of Ada Kaleh, inhabited for centuries by a Turkish community, was submerged and lost forever.

Creating a unique landscape in Europe, crossing half of the continent and four capitals, the Danube parades in its full glory on the territory of Iron Gates Nature Park, one of Romania’s must-see natural attractions. Spend at least 3-4 days here, we can guarantee you will remember it for years to come as very few places in Europe offer this mix of cultural, geographical and biological diversity.

Travel tips

Save half a day for the Serbian part of the Danube defile. You can cross the border through the checkpoint Iron Gates I. Besides the spectacular views and many tunnels, you can visit the large and overwhelming Golubac fortress that was hundreds of years ago a key customs point for ships.

Book your accommodation in advance. There are just a few good options in the area.

Discover Romania with our private tours.  More details on

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